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Wednesday, 19 September 2007

Black Prince's Well, Harbledown, Kent in 1776

Woodcut of Black Prince's Well in 1776:

NGR: TR129582
Postcode: CT2 9AF
See postings of 8th July 2007 on this site:

The Black Prince's Well is in the centre, about one third from bottom, at the confluence of two paths leaving the main track. Unfortunately, the woodcut shows the whole hospital complex and the well is very small. A black shadow is cast by something/someone in front of the well - which is, so far as can be told, shown as an uncontained pool emerging from a diamond shaped opening at the base of a wall (immediately above thing casting shadow). The well is clearly not set into a bank and is not below ground level - as at present.

It would not be possible to replicate this image today, as this view from the west is covered by an abandoned and overgrown cherry orchard (the fermented product of which I am drinking as I write this. However, if the woodcut is accurate, then the site was considerably different before the 1840s redevelopment, when all of the structures were demolished and the almshouses reduced in number to those in a rebuild of the long range running across the front of the church.

In fact, the landscape seems radically different to its present configuration - I walk here every day, it is about 300m from my home. The only place to the west high enough to provide the elevation from which this view was drawn is the still extant farmhouse known as Hopebourne (by the old A2 road to from London aka Watling Street - the route taken by Chaucer's Pilgrims), but historically called Hope Farm. The present Hopebourne house was constructed in the late C18th. At this time, the barn to the bottom left of the picture belonged to Brotherhood Farm, more recently called Hospital Farm. Out of picture is a stable range, now a substantial house in which my wife and I rented a flat for around three years - this complex was begun in the C16th.

Wednesday, 5 September 2007

Queen's Well, 1887, Benenden, Kent

This village pump and its shelter, (pictures below) were built to mark Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee at the junction of New Pond Road (roughly from the NNE) and The Street (runs roughly WSW-ESE) which is the main route through the village. I will provide grid references when I have access to my 1:25,000 map again.

There is no evidence of an earlier structure on the site, and I will earmark this for further research. The well is adjacent to an old toll house that marked the beginning of a turnpike. This was demolished in 1876. There is nothing at the site to suggest that there was an earlier well here and it is possible that the shaft was bored especially for the jubilee, to portray the monarch as benevolent provider of drinking water, perhaps, or to demonstrate the largesse of the Parish and its leading members, along with the village's love of the Queen-Empress. See: for a little more detail.

As can be seen, the pump mechanism has been removed from this well, probably for recycling into military hardware in World War Two, like many of its kind. This also needs verification.

There is a similar well, built in 1897 to commemorate the Diamond Jubilee, in the village of Iden Green, to the SW of Benenden. The 1:50k OS map shows that there was a Roman ford (NGR to follow), and surely therefore a road, between the two present-day settlements. Neither of these wells are marked on the 1:50k map.

The Benenden Well is near an ornamental lake called New Pond and a moated manor house, the former of which belonged to the latter. Both of these are at the southern extremity of the Hemsted Estate, now the site of Benenden School, where a great house has been situated since at least 1377. I will look into the relationship between these buildings.

just3days, the NWI Videographer reports a similar 1887 well in Staffordshire, in a posting to the NWI forum ( made on September 5th 2007. Tim says:

' Tip off from a librarian at Barton Under Needwood yielded a well called the Queen's Well at Dunstall, for Victoria's Jubilee in 1887. Nothing on any databases - but anything about this well being here earlier, or any holy attributes? SK 1820 2078 ' (Tim Prevett, NWI Index, Sept. 2007).

I will visit Iden Green as soon as I am able, and will research both wells. For now, here are some shots of the Queen's Well at Benenden:

Tuesday, 4 September 2007

A curious structure over a spring at Benenden School, nr Cranbrook, Kent.

The structure in the following pictures is located at Benenden School, nr Cranbrook Kent, on the former Hemsted estate which was a gentleman's country seat since at least 1377. It is marked as a spring on the 1:25,000 OS map (sheet no and gr to follow). The watercourse leading down the hill to the south is plainly apparent, though there is no water at present. However, the ground is moist and mossy (sphagnum) in the whole area surrounding the spring, which is covered by a grove of silver birch and other trees. The ground on which the spring stands is highly disturbed - very uneven, with some hint of a raised circular platform, through which the now dry water course cuts its way to the south. I will post some more precise measurements as soon as I am able, but the full size of the disturbed ground and grove of trees is no more than 50m radius, probably nearer 30m.

As can be seen, the structure once had a wooden door, parts of which are lying on the ground outside, with some buried in the mud floor of the interior.

The site is located on a ridge, the 'High Weald', that is a watershed, with springs running off to both north and south. Further down, near Benenden Village there is a water culvert some centuries old over a stream, that still carries a flow. This is related to ancient iron mining in the area. There are also many clay pits in the vicinity, now filled with water, from which the raw materials for brinks have been extracted at least since the sixteenth century.

To give some idea of scale, the person standing next to the brick structure over the spring is 5'3 " tall. The bricks are machine cut and resemble Victorian house bricks. The shape is reminiscent of an early medieval oratory, such as that at Galarus, Co. Kerry. Situated in a grove of established silver birch trees, with one mature oak and one elderly and dying Spanish Chestnut, the structure over the spring has the look of some kind of folly or purpose-built curio. There is no sign of Victorian water pipes, of the iron variety often used to carry water from springs. The water supply to Benenden Village was provided, before mains water, by the Queen's Well, in any case, at the west end of the village high street (insert ngr).

An inscription in cement on the north side of the spring structure says that is was restored in 1971, long after Benenden School purchased the Hemsted Estate in 1923. This effort was probably some enterprise by the school. As I have a close contact at the school I hope to have access to the library soon, and will also look elsewhere for further information on this enigmatic and interesting structure. The school itself is an independent boarding school for girls aged 11-18, with a 240 acre campus and many modern buildings grouped around the sixteenth century Hemsted House. The grounds are beautifully kept with a recent restoration of several water features.

When I saw this structure from a distance I thought that it might be a C18th Ice House, but the distance from the great house, nearly 10 minutes' walk unloaded and the small size than no human could, enter, and lack of any other structural evidence, along with the fact that the OS map marks a spring here, and a water course is plainly visible all mitigate against this. There is no sign of a spring anywhere else nearby, though there is some mud and water on the surface, despite current dry weather, in the area under the trees.

Sunday, 15 July 2007

Save Tara - motorway threatens premier Irish site

The Hill of Tara, one of the most extensive, complex, important, and informative archaeological, historical, folkloric, and religious sites in Ireland is under dire threat from a motorway development. Want to know more and to do something? Then read on - I posted the following to the NWI forum on July 14th 2007 (in the Lounge):

The following blog is exhaustive in its coverage of this issue:
This now seems to be the main website for the campaign.

People can also sign the petition you mentioned from there, join the Tarawatch mailing list, and watch/listen to numerous clips of RTE and other coverage. The blog is an education in itself as it goes into every imaginable aspect of this issue.

There was a BBC programme on the threat to ancient sites in the present rush to develop every corner of Ireland at some point in the last couple of years. I have been very busy and not always as attentive as I ought, and so my memory fails me - it could have been on Radio 4 or equally on TV - I am not able to swear that the sounds and images in my brain go together in this case. I will try to find relevant links and post them here. There are two links to BBC reports on the above blog in fact.

I will now take off my MWI Forum Moderator and Archival Officer hats and speak my own mind. On my part I agree that Ireland deserves to be as developed as the rest of western Europe and am delighted to see how her people are currently benefitting from this. However, I feel strongly that the rich ancient heritage of that country and its people should not be sacrificed in this process as places like Tara are in their own special and significant way part of this process of restoration to past greatness. Also, I think that it is essential that such sites should be preserved for scholarly and scientific purposes.

Tara is also of Christian and non-Christian religious significance, like many Irish sites now under threat and so it would be crassly insensitive to endanger it with development.

In my opinion, and to conclude, Ireland is not the pastoral idyll or mist-softened otherworld of a hundred thousand stereotypes, and never was, and so modernisation there is in many ways right and proper, BUT, it must be done responsibly and it is good to do our bit to ensure that this happens. All too often, Irish government policy mirrors that of the UK and so the same mistakes are replicated.

Friday, 13 July 2007

Some essential links.


This extremely comprehensive site provides a comprehensive index of Holy Wells in Ireland:

The county by county breakdown, under the heading 'Find a Well' at the bottom left, is very convenient and useful.

Megalithic Portal

This site has a searchable database of Holy Wells and Sacred Springs in the UK, with over 600 entries. Approximately 450 of these have pictures. Click here to find a well or spring in your county.

Sunday, 8 July 2007

St Ethelburga's Well, Lyminge, Kent

NGR: TR161408

Go to google maps for a good aerial view. Just type in Lyminge as the green arrow appears in the centre of the crossroads to the NNW of the site. Follow the road down through right of picture to the SSE and you will find a thin path leading to a square structure on the right side of the road. The church is clearly visible on the other side of the road, to the SSW of the well.

I have visited this site only once in passing and stopped there only for approximately twenty minutes. Without any background knowledge I am therefore only able to post observations unsupported as yet by research.

The village website, Lyminge online, (
/sep98.html) states that the well celebrated its centenary in September 1998, for which extensive restoration work was carried out. Presumably, as the village Church, dedicated to St Mary and St Ethelburga has fabric extant from the tenth century, and as St Ethelburga was the seventh century wife of King Edwin of Northumbria (
ethelburgalyming.html), this was the centenary of the construction of the Victorian drinking water pump on top of the holy well and perhaps an indicator of its lack of religious significance in the nineteenth century.

The Church is nearby, approximately three to five minute's walk, at the centre of the village, at the highest point, and is adjacent to once of the many Archbishop's palaces in Kent. The well lies on the spring line at the base of this higher ground. The church is located to the west-south-west of the well.

The well is located on a bend in the main road through the village and is on the right side if once approaches from Folkestone, that is approximately from the SSE. Unfortunately, the Victorian water pump, or 'wellhead' as the village website hopefully puts it in an attempt to find some redeeming feature in an excrescence of the industrial age, almost completely hides the well itself and the bars which prevent access to the water prevent the visitor from properly viewing or photographing the earlier structure. The glowering and oppressive pump house also prevents any light from reaching the well which is consequently foetid, stagnant, and malodorous. As this wholly secular structure is neither rare, being no more than a commonplace drinking water pump built in a workaday and functional style is both hideously ugly and has completely hidden the holy well beneath it is difficult to understand why the villagers wished to celebrate its centenary and why they did not instead tear it down and restore the holy well in order to make a far more agreeable and genuinely historical tourist attraction/sacred site.

It is also important to note that the well is the source of the Nailbourne River, which becomes the Little Stour at Littlebourne, and which eventually flows into the Great Stour, the river that flows through Canterbury . Between Elham and Bishopsbourne, this river flows underground for most of the year and can disappear for several years in dry conditions. The creation of the well is attributed to Augustine of Canterbury in local folklore who was said to struck his staff on drought stricken land in order to make water flow and deter the locals from the worship of Woden and Thor ( It seems most probable that the periodic disappearance of the river postdates its usage for drinking water, with over abstraction in times of drought bearing consequences further downstream.

This site may have been restored in 1997 but shows little evidence of attention since that date. The pump house is filled with litter and debris from the road, while the base, where the well can be seen through iron bars, is overgrown with nettles. The red-brick outer or rear wall of the structure, away from the road, facing ENE, has been tagged by a graffitist.

The open area to the ENE of the well is a recreation ground, called Tayne Field. At the far side of this there is an extremely clear and clean-looking stream with a gravelly/sandy bed across which stepping stones afford a crossing. It is impossible to date these by casual observation. The notion that they once provided pilgrims with access to the well is certainly not unfeasible especially when the proximity of the Saxon Church and Archbishop's palace are taken into account. There are numerous tracks in this area which are said to have been used by Pilgrims.

This site is certainly worth some serious research and I shall undertake this as soon as possible. I believe that documenting the history of this site thoroughly to increase usefulness of its value might lend weight to a campaign to have something done to have is maintained better and maybe to have the holy well somehow made plainly visible and distinct from the Victorian drinking water pump - even if this can be done by somehow leaving the latter standing, as it is a perverse source of local pride.

* Yes I know that I cited Wikipedia in an academic context. Deal with it.

Photos of the Black Prince's Well, 8th July 2007

Black Prince's Well, Harbledown

Post by Graham Mallaghan to National Wells Index forum.
Sunday 8th July 2007


NGR: TR129582
Postcode: CT2 9AF

I live approximately 300 metres from this well, and 200 metres from St Nicholas' Hospital. The well is freely accessible to the public, as are the grounds of St Nicholas Hospital. Entry to the church and frater - HIGHLY RECOMMENDED can be arranged by contacting Gill Raynor, the Sacristan, on 0044 1227 (edit in later).

This well is situated within the grounds of St Nicholas' Hospital, Harbledown which was established as a Leper Hospital in 1094 by Archbishop Lanfranc. With the disappearance of leprosy from England at the end of the C14th, it became a complex of almshouses. Presently, it continues to serve this function, providing accommodation to those elderly people fortunate enough to qualify for a corody from the Archbishop of Canterbury. The medieval site was extensively developed in 1598 and the Elizabethan almshouses were replaced by the present accommodation and frater in 1846. The church is still largely 12th century. St Nicholas' was a parish within the larger parish of Harbledown and Rough Common until 1934 when this status was abolished. The Hospital and the fields and orchards that once comprised Hospital Farm are now simply extra-parochial.

The well lies beneath the almshouses near the road entrance to the hospital site (just inside the grounds). The well is accessed by walking up a bank and then down into the chamber by a series of broad flat steps. I will provide precise dimensions on the part of this site for recording technical information and will also post a photo there. The 5 steps, made of stone flags, are approximately 3 feet wide. At the bottom of the steps there is a flat paved rectangle approximately 3ft x 4ft which floods when the well is full, now a very rare occurrence. The well housing itself is a arched embrasure approximately 5 feet 8 inches high which is set into an earth bank (the height is approx 6ft at the top of the keystone). The stone of the present structure is set upon a circular brick chamber which contains the water that flows into it from a hole at the back. There is no outflow, with excess taken care of by evaporation. The bricks are of the hand fired pre-industrial kind smaller and narrower than their Victorian saw-cut successors. A low retaining extends from each side of the central embrasure to hold up the bank.

The present well structure was constructed in or shortly after 1846, from medieval spolia taken from the structures demolished during the early Victorian redevelopment or from the many ruins cleared from the site at that time. A woodcut of 1776 shows that the well was approached on the flat at that time. This indicates that the steps and their stone-lined passage, also both built of medieval spolia, were products of the late 1840's redevelopment in imitation of other Holy Wells. It is known that the present ground level, about 4 feet higher than that of 1776 is the product of landscaping in 1846. The woodcut also appears to show that the well stood wholly within flat ground at this time, with no bank behind it.

The keystone of the well-housing's arch bears the Prince of Wales' feathers, presumably in reference to the Edward, the Black Prince. The stone on which they are carved has a carved concave curve at the top which indicates that it was the lower part of a medieval floreate church window. A photo of the well taken in the mid nineteenth century is said by local histories not to show this stone, which indicates that it was placed there after 1850, for antiquarian reasons, or to attract visitors. I have not been able to track down this photograph.

There is little evidence of what was located at this well prior to 1846, except for the brick chamber containing the water. Extensive remodelling and the constant ministrations of gardeners have obliterated earlier evidence. Excavation of the gravel and mud filled chamber would be a most useful action, especially as the well is now empty of all but a tiny amount of water never more then 2 inches in depth.

Local historians and previous commentators on the Black Prince's Well have suggested that it existed before the leper hospital and may indeed have attracted that institution to the spot. Others link such a healing tradition to the notion that the place-name Harbledown might derive from Herbal Down, perhaps in reference to the Black Lovage (Alexanders) and comfrey that grow abundantly here. However Herebald's-down is the most probable and widely accepted derivation and follows the anglo-saxon tradition of naming prominent landforms after notable individuals, or after the thegns that held them.

There is little evidence, either archaeological, folkloric, or documentary, to support the notion that the Black Prince's Well predates 1094. The fact that the Roman Road of Watling Street, and the pre-Christian Pilgrim's Way from Winchester meet very St Nicholas' hospital are no more than circumstantial indicators.

In fact, given that the Hospital was where medieval pilgrims stayed on the night before they entered Canterbury, and that a shoe supposedly belonging to St Thomas a Becket was kept as a relic there as late as the early sixteenth century, when Erasmus mentions it, it seems probably that the well was a creation of the hospital, perhaps in an attempt to gain revenue from dissemination of its reputation for healing. The name of the well derives from the fact that the Black Prince drank its waters gain relief from leprosy, an eye complaint, or dysentry in 1376 as he travelled back to London - where he subsequently died from his illness.

The well remains empty today with only a slight trickle of inflow that drains immediately away, so there is no pool of captured water as such. This is despite three weeks of heavy rain and the wettest June on record. The present condition of the site is excellent as its secluded location protects it from vandalism and the elements. It is also tended vicariously by the groundsman of St Nicholas, who has cleared away most of the vegetation in the last week.

There is little information available on traditions associated with this well, and none are currently practiced by the local people. Furthermore, there is no oral tradition among the elderly locals. Essentially, the well has served as a landscape feature to enhance the grounds of St Nicholas and provide a place of meditation for the occasional pilgrim and a photo opportunity for tourists.

In contrast, the hospital itself, and especially 'the leper church' has generated a great deal of folklore, such as the notion that the church has a sloping floor, down to the west door, in order to enable the monks to sweep the fallen body parts of lepers from the floor after services. The more likely notion of course is that such exiles from the community did not warrant high expenditure and that the floor was left sloped as a cost cutting exercise. It may also simply have subsided over time. There is also a wealth of artefactual and documentary history of this site. If strong traditions had existed around the well, then it seems improbable that these would have escaped the attention of the many antiquarians and others who have meticulously recorded the history and archaeology of St Nicholas Hospital.

At present, the well is not used for any purpose by the local community. While the well was full, up until autumn 2003, branches and flowers would occasionally be placed on the water, in front of the water, or in the back of the embrasure. This especially occurred on May 1st and on the Summer Solstice. However, as such votives have not appeared for three years, it is probable that they were placed there by UKC or Christchurch students who have now graduated and moved on, or perhaps reflect the belief of some local who thinks that the well is no longer 'holy' if it has no water in it.

Older people in the village have an unsentimental attitude, in most cases, to the well, as to the surrounding area as many of them were farm and orchard workers in the area for many years. There are a large number of middle class, middle-aged professionals in Harbledown many of who work in Canterbury's two universities or in the public sector and 'caring professions.' Such people, usually incomers, are often 'aware' of many so-called traditions that exist in the area, and have tried to import or restart others, such as the west-country practice of Apple Wossailing. Information about 'local customs' from such individuals should be taken with a pinch of salt due to their propensity for all things 'New Age' and subsequent ability to impose completely new ritual landscapes on their locality and pass off innovations as ancient tradition.

Of course, this is not a new phenomena, and all the available evidence points to the fact that the Black Prince's Well has fallen victim to it before, in the mid nineteenth century, when St Nicholas' Hospital was redeveloped and prior to that in the later middle ages by the monks, lepers, and recipients of alms who sought to exploit (and probably invent) connections with St Thomas A Becket and the Black Prince

A picture of the well can be seen on my blog, here:

Other will follow there shortly along with a scan of the 1776 woodcut (taken from a book before anyone gets excited about me having the original in my possession).